Ingredients: Agaricus mushroom powder,
Black cumin oil,
Cranberry seed oil,
Agaricus mushroom: Beneficial fiber sources with prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity have been identified in mushroom powder; additional anti-microbial and antioxidant functions, as well as vitamins in this ingredient can also contribute to improved animal health. More science can be found at Poultry Science.
Black Cumin oil: with its active primary ingredient thymoquinone, contributes antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-fungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties, and may support T-cell and natural killer cell-mediated immune activity. More info can be found at Poultry Science , Science Letters, and Tropentag, Stuttgart, Germany
Cardamom: Cardamom is rich in minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe) and vitamin (B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin A) activity. Various essential oils in cardamom including α-terpineol, myrcene, limonene, menthone , β-phellandrene, 1,8-cineol, sabinene and borneol, may inhibit the growth of bacteria, viruses, mold and fungus. Cardamom is also a good source of Mn, a mineral which plays a key role in antioxidant enzyme systems. More info can be found in this University of Khartoum thesis.
Carob: The health benefits of carob are mainly attributed to its vitamins (vitamins E, K and B2) and mineral (Ca, K, P, Se, Zn), as well as its natural polyphenol antioxidant content. Further, as a rich source of insoluble dietary fiber, carob can assist with digestive tract motility and function. More informatiom can be found at Food and Public Health.
Chia flour: Modern science has discovered why Chia was one of the most valued crops of the ancient Incan people. Chia seeds are an excellent source of antioxidant activity, soluble dietary fiber, and B vitamins. Vitamins B1 (thiamin) and B3 (niacin) nutrients act as biochemical catalysts in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and amino acids and play an important role in maintaining a healthy nervous system and luxurious plumage. Fermentable fibers support digestive tract health, and high ratios of omega 3:omega 6 fatty acids can support immune function. Nutrients and phytochemicals that contribute to the antioxidant capacity of chia include flavonoids, phenolic acids, and vitamins C and E. More info can be found at Poultry Science
Coconut oil: Virgin coconut oil has been shown to reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids, as well as increase HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues in animal models. The polyphenols found in coconut oil act as an antioxidant in the body; coconut oil has documented antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, and antiseptic activities, as well as immunostimulatory properties. Further, the medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil are absorbed directly from the intestines for rapid energy production, while the highly saturated fatty acids are an excellent carrier for the many beneficial fat-soluble compounds in Resilience, and act to maintain a homogenous texture for effective administration. An excellent review on medicinal properties of coconut can be found in the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine.
Coriander: Like many of the other ingredients in Resilience, compounds found in coriander act as free-radical scavengers and are powerful antioxidants. Coriander seeds and powders have been historically used as medicinal plants to treat many common maladies in humans, displaying anti-microbial, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, and have been used for aflatoxin, Salmonella, and Candida control. The volatile oils in coriander have components shown to benefit digestive health through anti-diabetic and anti-diarrheal actions, as well as impacts upon lipid metabolism, mutagenicity, and cell aging. A review of the medicinal properties of coriander can be found in the African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.
Cranberry seed Oil: is unique among the vegetable/fruit oils, containing some of the highest levels of mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols contributing to high vitamin E activity. Additionally it contains high concentrations of phytosterols and carotenoid pigments, and a 1:1 ratio of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids, providing further antioxidant activity as well as potential for boosting immune function and benefits to integument. Cranberry seed oil also contains proanthocyanidin compounds with antimicrobial properties.
Dried ginger: Ginger has a number of unique organic compounds called gingerols, which are powerful anti-inflammatory compounds. Gingerols have been directly associated with improvements to joint inflammation and associated pain, as well as early suppression of inflammatory compounds such as cytokines and chemokines, thus possessing both preventative as well as possible therapeutic properties. Gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties that may help reduce shipping stress. Ginger modulates glucose response, can stimulate the appetite, increases salivary and bile secretion, and may have the added effect of darkening eggshell pigmentation in some species and domestic layer hens. More info can be found at Poultry Science
Fenugreek: contains a wide variety of beneficial nutrients, including Fe, Mg, Mn, and Cu, as well as vitamin B6, protein, and dietary fiber. Fenugreek also contains a number of powerful phytonutrients, including choline, trigonelline, yamogenin, gitogenin, diosgenin, tigogenin and neotigogenin, which have been linked to lipid metabolism. Many of the health benefits identified in fenugreek appear due to the presence of saponins and fiber components - both soluble and insoluble - (hemicellulose, mucilage, pectin, galacto mannan, pectins, tannins) which can also add bulk to avian droppings. More info can be found at Poultry Science
Krill oil: is a source of the carotenoid pigment antioxidant astaxanthin, which helps protect against the damage caused by free-radical molecules and other oxidative stressors. Carotenoids are also responsible for intense pigmentation of bare facial skin, bills, legs and plumage in most avian species.
In addition to carotenoid pigments that provide coloration and vitamin A activity, Krill oil is a source of dietary omega-3 fatty acids; inclusion in the diets of poultry and other species has been shown to increase the omega-3 content of both meat and eggs. Increased omega-3 fatty acid status is linked with improved reproductive outputs, as well as increased immune system response.
Oregano oil: The health benefits of oregano oil can be attributed to its properties as an antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergenic substance, with chief components including carvacrol, thymol, cymene, caryophyllene, pinene, bisabolene, linalool, borneol, geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate and terpinene. Oregano oil can act as an expectorant; its essential oils have been shown to both prevent and treat symptoms of respiratory ailments. Oregano oil, if used regularly either internally or externally, may protect the body against many fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, and has been shown to assist in the elimination of intestinal worms as well as repel mosquitos, fleas, mites, and lice in avian species. Antioxidant properties in oregano oil may stimulate the immune system. Interested in the science? More info can be found at British Poultry Science article and an article in the South African Society for Animal Science
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Photo credits: Himalayan monal (top) photograph by Maggie Harmer; Turkey Poult video by Kermit Blackwood, music by Malachite